Monthly Archives: May 2018

2017 Sees Surge in Iowa Child Abuse Cases

2017 Sees Surge in Iowa Child Abuse Cases

Iowa Department of Human Services (DHS) figures released in mid-May show a striking increase in accepted child abuse reports and confirmed/founded abuse cases — leading to the largest single-year increase in abused children in at least two decades. The increases follow criticism of DHS officials over two high-profile teen deaths and a 2017 change in Iowa law expanding the scope of child protection to include more drug-related cases.

 

Table 1 (below) sets forth figures on how DHS handled child abuse reports from 2014-17. In 2017, DHS accepted 33,418 reports for assessment — a 30 percent increase from the 25,707 reports accepted in 2016.  DHS assigned 21.4 percent (7,136) of accepted reports to the family assessment track — much below the 29 percent assigned to this track in 2016.  (DHS assigns to the family assessment track those denial of critical care cases where it sees less risk of harm to children; those cases do not result in a determination whether abuse occurred.)

 

The remaining 26,282 child abuse reports (78.8%) received a traditional assessment, where DHS decides whether abuse occurred. In 2017, DHS found abuse in 32.6% (8,858) of its traditional assessments — a slightly lower percentage than the previous three years, when 35-36 percent of cases resulted in determinations that abuse occurred. The number of confirmed/founded cases in 2017 was almost one-third more than in 2016.

 

Table 1

DHS Reports, Assessments, and Confirmed Abuse, 2014-17

All told, DHS found that 11,236 children were abused in 2017 — a 27 percent increase from the 8,892 children abused in 2016. (There are more abused children than confirmed/founded cases because some cases involve more than one child as the subject of an abuse assessment.) This increase in abused children is the largest in the last two decades (see Table 2) — exceeding even the 2001 increase following the high-profile death of Shelby Duis, which led to major changes in the handling of abuse reports. A spreadsheet, Child Abuse in Iowa, 2017, has county-specific data on all of these categories. 

 

Table 2

Number of Iowa Children Abused, 1997-2017

Table 3 lists the number and types of abuse that DHS confirmed in 2017. Most common (64.6 percent) were instances of denial of critical care – where a parent or caretaker failed to provide adequate supervision, food, shelter, clothing, or other care necessary for a child’s well-being. Next most common (1,992 cases) were cases where someone possessed, distributed, manufactured, used, or cultivated cocaine, meth, heroin, or opium/opiates near a child. (Prior to 2017 legislation, this category included only cases involving meth manufacturing near a child; 33 instances of this type of abuse were found in 2016).

 

Other categories of abuse involved illegal drugs in a child’s body because of caretaker action or inaction (8.9 percent of all abuse), intentional physical injury (8.6 percent), sexual abuse (5.5 percent), and a parent or caretaker knowingly allowing a sex offender access to a child (1.0 percent).  Only 0.2 percent of cases involved mental injury to a child. A spreadsheet, Types of Child Abuse, 2017, has county-specific figures on types of abuse for  2017. 

 

Table 3

Number and Types of Child Abuse, 2017

 

Increases in the number of abused children was widespread, with 79 of Iowa’s 99 counties having more abused children in 2017 than in 2016. In five counties (Polk, Woodbury, Linn, Black Hawk, and Scott), the number of abused children rose in 2017 by 100 or more. In 13 counties, the number increased by more than half. Table 4 (below) lists those counties with the highest numeric and percentage increases. A spreadsheet, Child Abuse in Iowa, 2014-17, list the changes over the last four years for all Iowa counties. 

 

Table 4

Counties with the Largest Increases in Child Abuse, 2016-17

 

Summary

 

Changes in agency practice and child protection laws clearly had a significant impact in 2017 on Iowa’s child protection system. Unfortunately, this surge in demand for protection and services came during a time when state resources did not — no doubt putting greater strain on DHS and community providers. The need to increase resources to meet this demand is clear. Whether Iowa’s policymakers will meet that need in 2019 is uncertain.

 

Resources

A downloadable PowerPoint PDF contains data and notes expanding upon what

is in this report. There are the tables available for download:

Child Abuse in Iowa, 2017

Types of Child Abuse, 2017

Child Abuse in Iowa, 2014-17

Sexual and Physical Abuse, 2014-17

Denial of Critical Care and Presence of Illegal Drugs, 2014-17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Session-End Review of Legislation

Session-End Review of Legislation

On May 5, the Iowa Legislature completed its work for the 2018 session — well beyond the scheduled completion date of April 17. The session featured largely party-line votes on many policy bills and deep partisan divisions on State Fiscal Year (SFY) 2018 de-appropriations, SFY 2019 agency appropriations, and tax cut legislation.

 

The Iowa-AAP was active throughout the 2018 session supporting legislation to ensure the healthy physical and mental development of children. Following is a summary of legislative action on some of the 30-plus bills that Iowa-AAP supported, opposed, or registered undecided — along with links to blog posts and other resources.

 

Bills That Passed

 

Abuse of Opioid Prescription Drugs: On May 2, the Iowa House gave final approval to legislation (HF 2377) to enhance Iowa’s Prescription Monitoring Program as a means to curtail physician or pharmacy shopping in opioids. The bill also encourages the reporting of drug overdoses through a “Good Samaritan” provision. For more on this bill, see this blog post or a summary in the Des Moines Register. Iowa-AAP supported.  

Safe Haven: On March 29, Governor Reynolds signed into law  SF 360, which expands options for parents to legally abandon their newborns without being charged for abandonment. For more on Iowa’s Safe Haven law and this bill, see this blog post. Iowa-AAP was undecided.

Pharmacy immunizations and Vaccinations: On May 2, the Iowa House approved legislation (SF 2322) allowing pharmacies, after state adoption of protocols, to begin administering certain vaccinations or immunizations. For adults, pharmacies can administer naloxone, Tdap, nicotine replacement products, and other immunization or vaccinations recommended by the CDC for travel or as part of an approved schedule for adults. For those 12 and older, pharmacies can administer the second and third doses of the HPV vaccine. The Iowa-AAP expressed opposition to expanded pharmacy vaccinations of youth because of the potential adverse impact on their seeking health care.

Student Athlete Concussions: On April 26, the Governor signed legislation (HF 2442) to reduce the effects and recurrence of concussions in school sports, including: developing training materials for coaches and guidelines for school personnel and families; establishing rules governing returning to play following a concussion; and providing protective gear to students. Iowa-AAP supported.

School Tracking of Student Health Care: On April 17, the Governor signed into law a lengthy education bill, (SF 475), that creates a student health working group to re-examine how schools track whether students have received dental or vision screenings or immunizations. Iowa-AAP opposed this legislation because of its potential to weaken how schools track student health events.

 

Bills That Did Not Pass

 

Mandatory Reporter Training and Child Welfare ReformThe Iowa-AAP supported separate bills calling for DHS work groups to (a) identify how to improve training for mandatory reporters of child or dependent adult abuse (SF 2300) and (b) examine policies and protocols in multiple features of Iowa’s child protection system (HF 2353). Neither bill passed, but the health and human services appropriations bill (SF 2418) included a provision establishing a mandatory reporter training work group.

Coverage for Hearing Aids: The Iowa-AAP supported legislation requiring health insurers to pay for hearing aids for children at least every three years (HF 2178). This bill but not advance, but the Legislature appropriated $156,482 to provide audiological services and hearing aids for children. 

Cigarette Tax Increase. Along with 31 other organizations, Iowa-AAP supported legislation (HF 2339) increasing Iowa’s cigarette taxes by $1.50 a pack in order to reduce teen and adult smoking and raise revenue for health promotion and treatment services. This bill did not receive a hearing.

Public Health ProtectionsThe Iowa-AAP opposed separate bills weakening public health efforts — none of which advanced for a committee vote. The bills sought to: (a) abolish the Iowa Department of Public Health (HF 2017), (b) expand distribution of raw milk (HF 2055), and (c) widen exemptions to Iowa’s compulsory immunization law (HF 7). (For more on the immunization law, see this  blog post.)

Recipient Work Requirements: Iowa-AAP opposed House (HF 2428) and Senate (SF 2370) legislation imposing work requirements on Medicaid recipients. The more punitive Senate bill imposed additional non-work requirements on Medicaid recipients and expanded them to people receiving SNAP (Food Stamps) and Family Investment Program (FIP) benefits. Both bills received committee approval but no chamber vote.

Expanding Access to Care. The Iowa-AAP supported legislation to expand health care by: (a) helping mothers receiving pregnancy-related Medicaid to access health insurance post-partum (SF 11) and (b) restoring three-month retroactive eligibility for Medicaid (SF 2075). The Senate did not hold subcommittee meetings on these bills.